Home > Regions > Asia > Pakistan > Exclusion: a hidden driver of Pakistan’s fragility

Author

Clare Castillejo

Clare Castillejo  is a senior researcher at the Fundación para las Relaciones Internacionales y el Diálogo Exterior. She has 15 years of experience in research and policy analysis and has worked for leading donors, multilaterals, non-governmental organisations and research institutes. Her re...
More

Related publications

a A share Email print

Exclusion: a hidden driver of Pakistan’s fragility

Clare Castillejo, 26 April 2012

Deeply entrenched patterns of political, social and economic exclusion are fuelling Pakistan’s fragility. Large segments of the population are denied basic rights, access to resources, or a political voice based on their identity or location. This creates grievances that motivate people to violence. It also perpetuates Pakistan’s elite and unaccountable governance, which itself is a major cause of instability.

There are four main axes of exclusion that most clearly drive Pakistan’s fragility. These are the political and economic exclusion of some regions by the political centre; the exclusion from access to land experienced by much of the rural population; the profound exclusion and violence faced by religious minorities; and the exclusion of many young people and women, which contributes to Pakistan’s demographic instability. Ultimately, all these forms of exclusion serve the interests of Pakistan’s civilian, military and traditional elites. Hence there is little political will to challenge them.

The international community has so far failed to pay sufficient attention to issues of exclusion and inequality within its response to Pakistan’s fragility. European actors are particularly well placed to address exclusion through their political engagement and development assistance to Pakistan. However, they are likely to face strong resistance from Pakistani elites, as well as other challenges. 

Featured

Stay informed

Subscribe to notifications from NOREF.

Follow NOREF

Recommended

 
Interview with Mariano Aguirre
ISN
Interview with Mariano Aguirre
ISN
 
BBC
BBC
Kurdish peace 'impossible' - Turkey
Kurdish peace 'impossible' - Turkey
Gaddafi's son sentenced to death
Gaddafi's son sentenced to death
Air strikes pierce truce in Yemen
Air strikes pierce truce in Yemen
 
Al Jazeera
Al Jazeera
gif
gif
Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam sentenced to death
Gaddafi's son Saif al-Islam sentenced to death
NATO supports Turkey on tackling ISIL and PKK threats
NATO supports Turkey on tackling ISIL and PKK threats
 
ISN
ISN
SIPRI Yearbook 2015
SIPRI Yearbook 2015
Development Deferred: Eastern Sudan after the ESPA
Development Deferred: Eastern Sudan after the ESPA
Renminbi Ascending: How China?s Currency Impacts Global Markets, Foreign Policy, and Transatlantic Financial Regulation
Renminbi Ascending: How China?s Currency Impacts Global Markets, Foreign Policy, and Transatlantic Financial Regulation